That homer, coming off a 92.6 mph 1-0 fastball from Boston Red Sox left-handed starter Eduardo Rodriguez, was Voit's 10th since being traded to the Yankees in late July, just ahead of the non-waiver trade deadline.
Voit is now the 12th player on the roster to have hit 10 or more home runs with the team this season, marking the first time in major league history that a team has had at least that many players hit double-digit home runs in a single season.
"It's still pretty cool to be a part of that," Voit said in the wake of an 11-6 loss, which gave Boston the AL East title. "It's something to kind of take a positive from that game. No one else can say that they did that."
The 407-foot shot to center field that bounced onto the netting covering Yankee Stadium's Monument Park broke the previous record of 11 that the Yankees shared with the 2015 and 2017 Astros, the 2016 Twins and the 2004 Tigers.
In addition to Voit, Giancarlo Stanton (35 after his fourth-inning grand slam), Aaron Judge (26), Didi Gregorius (26), Miguel Andujar (25), Aaron Hicks (24), Gleyber Torres (23), Gary Sanchez (16), Brett Gardner (12), Greg Bird (11) and Neil Walker (10) also have double-digit home runs.
Although Voit has 10 home runs with the Yankees, he has 11 overall. He hit one other homer while a member of the Cardinals before the trade.
Outfielder Andrew McCutchen, a waiver trade deadline acquisition who arrived earlier this month, also has hit more than 10 home runs this season, but he hit 15 of his 19 with the Giants.
Voit's second-inning blast also allowed the Yankees to set a new single-season franchise record with their 246th homer of the year, surpassing the mark set in 2012.
The Yankees are on pace to hit 263 homers, one shy of the major league single-season record of 264 set by the 1997 Mariners.
The Red Sox won 11-6 to clinch the American League East title for the third straight season.