Terms were not disclosed by the team, but the deal is for $1.5 million contract, according to multiple reports Friday.
Chicago had been looking for a backup catcher since trading Victor Caratini to San Diego last month. Miguel Amaya is among the organization's top prospects, but he finished his last minor league season at the Class A level.
The 32-year-old Romine hit .238 with two homers and 17 RBIs in 37 games with Detroit last year, earning $1,537,037 in prorated pay from a $4.15 million salary. He played parts of eight seasons with the New York Yankees before signing with the Tigers as a free agent.
Romine had his most productive season with New York in 2018, batting .244 with a career-high 10 homers and 42 RBIs in 77 games.
Chicago has Willson Contreras in place as the starting catcher, but he has been mentioned in trade rumors. The Cubs are retooling under president Jed Hoyer, but they are hoping to stay in the mix in the NL Central after winning the division in 2020.