Federici, who has won 16 caps for Australia, and most recently played for the Socceroos in 2016, joins the Bulls after a two-season spell with English Championship club Stoke City.
The 35-year-old from the NSW South Coast is Macarthur's third signing, after winger Tommy Oar and young midfielder Denis Genreau.
"Adam's knowledge and experience in the top European leagues will be invaluable to our squad," Bulls coach Ante Milicic said.
"The opportunity to strengthen our roster with someone of Adam's ability and professionalism doesn't come around often."
Next season will be Federici's first in the A-League.
"To be able to come back to Australia and play football, not only at a start-up club but also only 90 minutes from where I grew up, is something I could not pass on," he said.