He finished his stint with the Blue Jays with a 1-5 record and an 11.12 ERA this season.
Jackson, 35, was acquired from Oakland in May. His major league career spans 17 seasons.
He has a lifetime record of 105-128 with a 4.70 ERA in 402 games. Jackson made his big league debut with the Los Angeles Dodgers in 2003 and also pitched for Tampa Bay, Arizona, Washington, the Chicago Cubs, Atlanta, San Diego, Miami, Baltimore and Oakland. He was 6-3 with a 3.33 ERA in 17 starts for the Athletics last season, when he tied Octavio Dotel's record of playing for 13 teams.
To fill Jackson's spot on the roster, the Blue Jays recalled right-hander Jacob Waguespack.