Here are some of the key numbers from Nadal's successful title defence in Paris.
Nadal is now the first player in the Open Era, male or female, to win the same Grand Slam 12 times. At all tour-level events, Nadal joins Martina Navratilova (Chicago) as the only players to win the same tournament 12 times. The Spaniard also broke a tie with Australia's Margaret Court, who won four of her 11 Australian Open titles after the start of the Open Era in 1968.
The players - male or female - with the next-highest number of singles titles at the same Grand Slam are Martina Navratilova (nine, Wimbledon), followed by Roger Federer (eight, Wimbledon). Serena Williams (seven, Australian Open and Wimbledon), Novak Djokovic (seven, Australian Open), Chris Evert (seven, French Open), Steffi Graf and Pete Sampras (seven, both at Wimbledon) are next on the list.
In addition, Nadal has won titles in Monte Carlo and Barcelona 11 times each. Federer (nine each at Halle and Basel) and Argentine clay-court legend Guillermo Vilas (eight, Buenos Aires) are the male players with the next-highest number of titles at a tournament below Grand Slam level.
The number of Grand Slam singles titles now held by Nadal, who is second on the all-time list among men in the Open Era, behind Federer (20), and ahead of Djokovic (15), Sampras (14), and Roy Emerson (12). The last time Nadal and Federer were separated by just two slams was July 2004, when Federer had two majors and Nadal had none.
The number of Grand Slam finals contested by Nadal, the second highest among men in the Open Era, behind Federer (30) and ahead of Djokovic (24) and Ivan Lendl (19).
Nadal's win-loss record in Roland Garros finals, which is the best in a Grand Slam final among men in the Open era, ahead of Sampras (7-0, Wimbledon), Djokovic (7-0, Australian Open) and Borg (6-0, French Open). Federer's record in Wimbledon finals is 8-3. Of those 12 finals, seven have been won in four sets, the rest in straight sets.
Nadal's win-loss record at the French Open, his only losses coming against Swede Robin Soderling in the fourth round in 2009 and against Djokovic in the quarterfinals in 2015. The Spaniard officially withdrew before the start of his third-round match in 2016.
Nadal's career singles title count, which is fourth on the all-time list, behind Jimmy Connors (109), Federer (101) and Ivan Lendl (94), and ahead of John McEnroe (77).
The number of titles won by Nadal on clay, extending his lead at the top of the men's Open Era leader board. He is ahead of Vilas (49) and Austria's Thomas Muster (40).
The number of consecutive Grand Slam tournaments now won by a man aged 30 or older, the longest streak of its kind in the Open Era. The previous record was four, when Australian legend Laver won all the majors in 1969 to complete the Calendar Slam.
Nadal is now the fourth male player in the Open Era to win four Grand Slam titles after turning 30, joining Federer, Ken Rosewall and Rod Laver for the most in the category.
At 33 years, 6 days, Nadal is now the third-oldest man in the Open Era to win the French Open, after Andrés Gimeno in 1972 (34 years, 306 days) and Ken Rosewall in 1968 (33 years, 220 days)
Thiem is now the fifth man in the Open Era to lose back-to-back French Open finals, The others are Andre Agassi (1990-91), Federer (three straight from 2006-08), Soderling (2009-10) and Djokovic (2014-15).
(Statistics courtesy of ESPN's Statistics & Information Group)